The community had grown to 6,000 members by 1938, but after the proclamation of the Racial Laws by Mussolini (in Unità di Italia Square, no less, in 1938) and the German occupation in 1943, the Nazis began harsh roundups and persecutions. In fact, the only concentration camp in Italy was built at the Risiera di San Sabba (San Sabba Rice Mill), and 710 Jews were deported from the city.
At the end of the war, in 1945, only 2,300 Jews remained in Trieste. Today, the Jewish community has approximately 700 members.
The oldest official document that mentions a Jewish settlement in Trieste, albeit a small one, is dated 1236 and consists of a notary act that mentions the Jew Daniel David of Trieste, who spent 500 marks to fight thieves on the Karst plateau.
From an architectural perspective, the synagogue is rather original - it features Middle Eastern-inspired decorations and stylized Jewish symbols.
The large central dome can only be glimpsed from a distance, while the half-dome and small side domes are visible from the square and nearby streets.